Top
×
J Transl Genet Genom 2019;3:6.10.20517/jtgg.2018.32© The Author(s) 2019.
Open AccessEditorial

Emerging role of microRNAs in allergic diseases

1Departmen of Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Mount Nittany Medical Group, State College, PA 16803, USA.

2Department of Medicine, Section of Allergy and Immunology, Pennsylvania State University Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

Correspondence Address: Dr. Faoud Ishmael, Department of Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Mount Nittany Medical Group, 1850 E. Park Ave, Suite 201, State College, PA 16803, USA. E-mail: faoud.ishmael@mountnittany.org

    This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs in Allergic Diseases
    Science Editor: Faoud Terrence Ishmael | Copy Editor: Cai-Hong Wang | Production Editor: Huan-Liang Wu
    ...

    © The Author(s) 2019. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, for any purpose, even commercially, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has risen at alarming rates, and a recent study identified allergic sensitization in 40% of school children worldwide[1]. Allergic diseases affect a wide variety of organs, including eyes (allergic conjunctivitis), nose (allergic rhinitis), airway (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (food allergies and eosinophilic esophagitis), and skin (atopic dermatitis). Common gaps among these diseases are the lack of understanding of the molecular basis of pathogenesis (particularly how and why inflammation is de-regulated), and the crucial need to identify biomarkers to better diagnose and characterize these diseases. Along these lines, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as central regulators of many processes (including inflammation) and potentially useful biomarkers (in large part because they are found in all biofluids). As a result, it is not surprising that these two fields have intersected, and a better understanding of how miRNAs regulate allergic inflammation could lead to novel therapies and diagnostic tools.

    We are just beginning to understand the roles of miRNAs in allergic diseases. This special issue highlights the emerging roles of miRNAs in across a spectrum of allergic disease that affects different organ systems, and demonstrates their potential application to understanding, treating, and diagnosing human disease. The article by Weidner et al.[2] reviews the progress in our understanding of miRNAs in asthma, and the evolution of research from mouse to humans. This review captures the translational research potential of miRNAs in asthma, and underscores the need for both mouse and human studies in mechanistic miRNA studies. In particular, ablation of pathogenic miRNAs (such as miR-155) in mice has demonstrated their crucial role in pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, and their conserved role in human disease is now becoming evident. In work from our lab, Zhang et al.[3] present a primary research article that builds on the mechanistic studies to show how miRNAs can be used to better characterize asthma. We now understand that asthma is a syndrome that is comprised of many distinct phenotypes, which have different molecular causes and respond differently to medications. There is a lack of biomarkers to categorize patients into these phenotypes, which hampers our ability to effectively diagnose and treat asthma. Our work demonstrated that blood miRNAs are capable of objectively categorizing patients in different phenotypes, which may tell us about the molecular mechanisms of these forms of asthma and allow us to better tailor treatment for each patient (personalized therapy)[3]. It is interesting to note that many of the miRNAs discussed by Weidner et al.[2] were candidates we identified in the biomarker study, indicating that these are functional biomarkers that may also serve as therapeutic targets.

    The article by Bhardwaj further extends the miRNA research to atopic dermatitis, an allergic skin disease[4]. Many of the asthma candidate miRNAs emerged as players in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, suggesting that miRNA pathways may be de-regulated in the skin in an analogous manner to the airways in asthma. Along these lines, Lambert et al.[5] reviewed the current literature on miRNAs in eosinophilic esophagitis, a relatively new disease whose pathogenesis is poorly characterized. A panel of miRNAs was found to be de-regulated in inflamed esophageal tissue, and mechanistic studies suggest that they regulate allergic cytokine signaling. Together, these studies demonstrate the potential importance of miRNAs as pathogenic mediators and biomarkers of allergic disease. Translational approaches using mouse models and humans have produced findings that have direct clinical relevance. Many miRNAs were implicated in common across organ-specific allergic diseases, suggesting that targeting them for therapeutics could present a strategy to treat a broad spectrum of allergic diseases.

    Declarations

    Authors’ contributions

    The author contributed solely to the article.

    Availability of data and materials

    Not applicable.

    Financial support and sponsorship

    None.

    Conflicts of interest

    The author declared that there are no conflicts of interest.

    Ethical approval and consent to participate

    Not applicable.

    Consent for publication

    Not applicable.

    Copyright

    © The Author(s) 2019.

    References

    • 1. Pawankar RS, Sanchez-Borges M, Bonini S, Kaliner MA. The burden of allergic diseases. In: Pawankar R, Canonica GW, Holgate ST, Lockey RF, editors. White book on allergy 2011-2012 executive summary. Milwaukee: World Allergy Organization; 2011. pp. 27-74.

    • 2. Weidner J, Malmhäll C, Rådinger M. microRNAs in asthma pathogenesis - from mouse to man. J Transl Genet Genom 2019;3:2.

      DOI
    • 3. Zhang S, Laryea Z, Panganiban R, Lambert K, Hsu D, et al. Plasma microRNA profiles identify distinct clinical phenotypes in human asthmatics. J Transl Genet Genom 2018;2:18.

      DOI
    • 4. Bhardwaj N. MicroRNAs in atopic dermatitis: a review. J Transl Genet Genom 2017;1:15-22.

      DOI
    • 5. Lambert KA, Jhaveri P, Jhaveri P. Biomarkers and therapeutic targets: microRNA roles in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of eosinophilic esophagitis. J Transl Genet Genom 2018;2:11.

      DOI

    Cite This Article

    Ishmael F. Emerging role of microRNAs in allergic diseases. J Transl Genet Genom 2019;3:6. http://dx.doi.org/10.20517/jtgg.2018.32

    Views
    5952
    Downloads
    326
    Citations
     0
    Comments
    62

    54

    Download and Bookmark

    Download

    Download PDF Add to Bookmark

    Share This Article

    Article Access Statistics

    Quantities of Full-Text Views Each Month

    Quantities of PDF Downloads Each Month

    Comments

    Comments must be written in English. Spam, offensive content, impersonation, and private information will not be permitted. If any comment is reported and identified as inappropriate content by OAE staff, the comment will be removed without notice. If you have any queries or need any help, please contact us at support@oaepublish.com.

    • Bill Li   
      fdkjsh kjdshfj ksdhfj sdhjf sdf sdhfjk shdjf dhs ksdhk dfj idjf iodjsf oijsdi fjidsj iodsjf ijdoi fjsdio jfisdj ifosjd ifjsid jfiosdj isdj ijsdif jsidj fisdjifsdjfi jsdif jiosdjfiosjdfi jsidofj iosj ifjsdi jfiosdjf isdj foijsdoi jfiosdj fisdji fojdsif jisdjf isdjfio sjdif 

      24 Jun 2020 08:33

       0

    • Bill Li   
      sad pdf d ds f
      def pdf pdf pdf 
      
      df asdf sad asdf 
      
      
      
      ds fasdf 
      pdf sad pdf pdf def staff pdf def pdf pdf asdf thuds fuhnsdhufn sduhfn nfhns dhufn sdfhdsnf nsdhufn sdhfn sdfhu ansudf

      24 Jun 2020 08:33

       0

    • Grace Zheng   
      Good

      23 Jun 2020 08:09

      1 replies

       2

    • Wendy Gong   
      Great!!!

      23 Jun 2020 08:05

       4

    • Grace Zheng   
      Good job

      23 Jun 2020 08:02

       4

    • Mavis Wei   
      Great!

      23 Jun 2020 08:02

      1 replies

       4

    • Grace Zheng   
      OK

      23 Jun 2020 08:00

      1 replies

       3

    • Wendy Gong   
      Good

      23 Jun 2020 08:00

      1 replies

       0

    • Grace Zheng   
      Good!!!

      23 Jun 2020 07:53

       0

    • Alisa   
      Excellent

      23 Jun 2020 07:29

      3 replies

       1

    • Alisa   
      great work

      23 Jun 2020 07:28

       1

    • Olivia Zhao   
      Amazing 

      23 Jun 2020 07:07

       1

    • Olivia Zhao   
      Great 

      23 Jun 2020 06:43

      1 replies

       1

    • Olivia Zhao   
      good

      23 Jun 2020 06:36

       1

    • Lori Kang   
      111

      23 Jun 2020 06:34

      1 replies

       1

    • Lori Kang   
      Ha ha ha

      23 Jun 2020 06:29

      3 replies

       2

    • Gladys Di   
      Wow

      23 Jun 2020 06:14

      1 replies

       4

    • Kerri Yuan   
      
      			
      				

      23 Jun 2020 06:12

       1

    • Chloe Yang   
      123

      23 Jun 2020 06:10

       1

    • Lori Kang   
      interesting!

      23 Jun 2020 06:03

      5 replies

       4

    • Chloe Yang   
      helpful

      23 Jun 2020 05:55

      5 replies

       2

    • Elaine Gao   
      123

      23 Jun 2020 05:53

       2

    • Kerri Yuan   
      Surprise

      23 Jun 2020 05:47

      1 replies

       4

    • Gladys Di   
      Very good!!

      23 Jun 2020 05:46

      6 replies

       4

    • Olivia Zhao   
      interesting article!

      23 Jun 2020 05:45

      4 replies

       2

    • Bill Li   
      very good!!

      23 Jun 2020 03:00

      2 replies

       1

    Article Access Statistics

    • Viewed: 5952
    • Downloaded: 326
    • Cited: Crossref0

    Share This Article

    See Updates